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脫硫廢水相關知識論述
閱讀量:324 發表時間:2023-03-27

1、來源(yuan)及成(cheng)分(fen)

燃(ran)煤(mei)電廠煙氣脫(tuo)(tuo)硫(liu)(liu)方法(fa)(fa)主要包括濕法(fa)(fa)、半干(gan)法(fa)(fa)及干(gan)法(fa)(fa),其(qi)中(zhong)石(shi)(shi)(shi)灰(hui)(hui)(hui)石(shi)(shi)(shi)—石(shi)(shi)(shi)膏濕法(fa)(fa)工(gong)(gong)藝(yi),脫(tuo)(tuo)硫(liu)(liu)效率(lv)(lv)比較高(gao)且(qie)(qie)負荷響應(ying)快、運(yun)行可靠性(xing)強,適(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)范圍廣(guang)、吸(xi)收劑使用(yong)(yong)效率(lv)(lv)高(gao)、成(cheng)本低且(qie)(qie)產物(wu)(wu)石(shi)(shi)(shi)膏適(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)發展(zhan)比較成(cheng)熟,已成(cheng)為(wei)現(xian)階(jie)段應(ying)用(yong)(yong)最為(wei)廣(guang)泛、成(cheng)熟度較高(gao)的一(yi)種煙氣脫(tuo)(tuo)硫(liu)(liu)工(gong)(gong)藝(yi)技(ji)(ji)術(shu),在(zai)FGD已裝機組容(rong)量(liang)中(zhong),占比超過85%。濕法(fa)(fa)處理工(gong)(gong)藝(yi)中(zhong),隨(sui)著(zhu)系(xi)統(tong)的運(yun)行,煤(mei)、石(shi)(shi)(shi)灰(hui)(hui)(hui)石(shi)(shi)(shi)及工(gong)(gong)藝(yi)水(shui)中(zhong)氯離子(zi)成(cheng)分不(bu)斷(duan)富(fu)集(ji),其(qi)濃度太高(gao)就(jiu)會影響系(xi)統(tong)運(yun)行。為(wei)了確保脫(tuo)(tuo)硫(liu)(liu)系(xi)統(tong)運(yun)行正常,適(shi)(shi)當(dang)地排放脫(tuo)(tuo)硫(liu)(liu)廢水(shui)顯得尤(you)為(wei)重要,控制系(xi)統(tong)氯離子(zi)含量(liang)為(wei)20000mg/l。這種處理工(gong)(gong)藝(yi)其(qi)雜質主要為(wei)懸浮物(wu)(wu)、過飽和亞酸鹽、硫(liu)(liu)酸鹽及重金(jin)屬離子(zi)等,其(qi)中(zhong)多種物(wu)(wu)資都屬于國家環保標準(zhun)中(zhong)規定的一(yi)類(lei)嚴格控制污染物(wu)(wu)。因燃(ran)煤(mei)成(cheng)分、燃(ran)燒工(gong)(gong)況(kuang)及石(shi)(shi)(shi)灰(hui)(hui)(hui)石(shi)(shi)(shi)等存(cun)在(zai)一(yi)定的差異,脫(tuo)(tuo)硫(liu)(liu)廢水(shui)中(zhong)不(bu)含有典型水(shui)質,且(qie)(qie)水(shui)質與水(shui)量(liang)穩定性(xing)比較差。

2、處理工(gong)藝

其(qi)處理(li)工藝(yi)主要是(shi)利用(yong)化(hua)(hua)學與機(ji)械方法,將(jiang)(jiang)重金(jin)屬與其(qi)它可(ke)沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian)物(wu)分離開來。一般常規(gui)處理(li)包含中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和、絮(xu)(xu)凝(ning)(ning)(ning)、沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian)及過(guo)濾(lv)等環節(jie),其(qi)主要流程(cheng)是(shi):脫硫設(she)備形(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)的弱酸脫硫廢水(shui)(shui)通過(guo)脫水(shui)(shui)系統傳(chuan)輸到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和箱(xiang),中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和箱(xiang)廢水(shui)(shui)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)摻(chan)入(ru)石(shi)灰乳,將(jiang)(jiang)其(qi)PH值調(diao)升到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)9.5±0.3,以便大(da)部(bu)分重金(jin)屬得到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian)。沉(chen)(chen)降箱(xiang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),摻(chan)入(ru)有機(ji)硫,促使無法以氫(qing)氧化(hua)(hua)物(wu)形(xing)式(shi)進行沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian)的重金(jin)屬物(wu)質得到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian);絮(xu)(xu)凝(ning)(ning)(ning)箱(xiang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),摻(chan)入(ru)FeClSO4絮(xu)(xu)凝(ning)(ning)(ning)劑(ji),顆粒變大(da)便于(yu)沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian);廢水(shui)(shui)流出(chu)絮(xu)(xu)凝(ning)(ning)(ning)箱(xiang)后,加(jia)入(ru)PAM助凝(ning)(ning)(ning)劑(ji),形(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)便于(yu)沉(chen)(chen)降的大(da)絮(xu)(xu)凝(ning)(ning)(ning)顆粒物(wu);澄(cheng)清或濃(nong)縮池(chi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),從廢水(shui)(shui)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)分離出(chu)懸浮物(wu),池(chi)底部(bu)進行沉(chen)(chen)積,部(bu)分利用(yong)污泥(ni)輸送泵(beng)(beng)傳(chuan)送到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)壓濾(lv)機(ji),制成(cheng)(cheng)外運泥(ni)餅;其(qi)它的污泥(ni)用(yong)于(yu)接觸(chu)污泥(ni),通過(guo)污泥(ni)循(xun)環泵(beng)(beng)被返送到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和箱(xiang),用(yong)于(yu)沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian)晶核,增強(qiang)沉(chen)(chen)淀(dian)效果(guo);儲水(shui)(shui)箱(xiang)安裝PH測量裝置(zhi),如果(guo)在(zai)PH值范圍內,直(zhi)(zhi)接輸送到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)排水(shui)(shui)口(kou);如果(guo)測量值超過(guo)規(gui)定范圍,就要加(jia)入(ru)鹽酸進行調(diao)節(jie)直(zhi)(zhi)到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)達到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)PH設(she)定標準即可(ke);反之,如果(guo)PH值不超過(guo)下限,就要將(jiang)(jiang)廢水(shui)(shui)返送到(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)和箱(xiang)再處理(li)。

3、處理(li)現狀

燃煤電廠脫硫廢水處理中(zhong),對設備運行維護有很(hen)高(gao)的要求,設備管道(dao)極(ji)易被(bei)堵塞,使(shi)得脫硫廢(fei)水(shui)(shui)處理系統運行效率(lv)難以提高(gao)。廢(fei)水(shui)(shui)經過處理后,氯(lv)離子、鹽及(ji)重金屬等(deng)含量比較高(gao),不能直(zhi)接排放到自然(ran)水(shui)(shui)體環境,回(hui)收再利用(yong)于(yu)電廠煤場、灰場噴灑及(ji)沖灰等(deng),但因場地距(ju)離與噴灑用(yong)量等(deng)因素限(xian)制,實際回(hui)收使(shi)用(yong)效率(lv)并(bing)不高(gao)。


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2021-01-04